History of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict and the British Mandate of Palestine which has Always Been “The Land of Israel”

The Arab revolt of 1936–39 with the British, motivated by opposition to mass Jewish immigration.

What was the land of Israel called before 1948?

Well technically it was always the Land of Israel as the phrase “Land of Israel” is regarding the territory that Jacob, and his children and their descendants settled in.

However prior to the territory becoming Israel it was known as the British Mandate for Palestine. The British Mandate for Palestine was part of the League of Nations mandate, that was later named the United Nations which was used to establish new countries from the dissolution of the World War I empires.

The 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine was a nationalist uprising by Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of Jewish immigration as the League of Nations had authorized in 1922. The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Mohammad Amin al-Husayni of 16 May 1930 as ‘Palestine Day’ and calling for a General Strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as “immoral and terroristic”, often comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.

The Mandate for Palestine originally comprised both what is now Israel and what is now Jordan: The Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan was established by giving a Saudi family control of the territory. Prior to that the Ottoman Empire controlled the territory and it was split up into different substates – called Eyelets or Sandjaks. Vitaly Ustinov stated all the divisions in his answer.

This is the map that pro-Palestinians use a lot to claim that it was always Palestine. But they forget to translate the latin which says Palestine OR the entire promised land. Specifically referring to it as the promised land of the Jewish people. This is the British Mandate of Palestine, this was purposely done by the House of Roth and Lord Rothschild that claims to be a Jew but is not. The migration of Jews and lost tribes of Israel back to their homeland started in the early 1920’s.

You can find a lot of maps that refer to parts of the territory as Palestina or some variation of that because there are many, but you’ll notice that this part is always down in the southern area where Gaza now exists.

The Israeli–Palestinian conflict has its roots in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the birth of major nationalist movements among the Jews and among the Arabs, both geared towards attaining sovereignty for their people in the Middle East. The collision between those two forces in southern Levant and the emergence of Palestinian nationalism calling themselves Palestinians in the 1920s eventually escalated into the Israeli–Palestinian conflict in 1947, and expanded into the wider Arab–Israeli conflict later on.

Fields on fire at the Gan-Shmuel Kibbutz. Picture taken between 1936 and 1939.

With the outcome of the First World War, the relations between Jewish and Arab national movements seemed to be potentially friendly, and the Faisal–Weizmann Agreement created a framework for both aspirations to coexist on the former Ottoman Empire‘s territories. However, with the defeat and dissolution of the Arab Kingdom of Syria in July 1920 following the Franco-Syrian War, a crisis fell upon the Damascus-based Arab national movement. The return of several hard-line Palestinian Arab nationalists, under the emerging leadership of Haj Amin al-Husseini, from Damascus to a Mandatory Palestine marked the beginning of Palestinian Arab nationalist struggle towards establishment of a national home for Arabs of called Palestine.

Amin al-Husseini, the architect of the Palestinian Arab national movement, immediately marked Jewish national movement and Jewish immigration to Palestine as the sole enemy to his cause, initiating large-scale riots against the Jews as early as 1920 in Jerusalem and in 1921 in Jaffa. Among the results of the violence was the establishment of the Jewish paramilitary force Haganah. In 1929, a series of violent anti-Jewish riots was initiated by the Arab leadership. The riots resulted in massive Jewish casualties in Hebron and Safed, and the evacuation of Jews from Hebron and Gaza. This struggle we have today was started by the Arabs that now call themselves Palestinians which originate from Jordan.

The beginning of the Arab Revolt of 1936-39. British riot police clash with Palestinian demonstrators protesting Britain’s pro-Zionist policies (specifically increasing Zionist immigration into “The Land of Israel”

In the early 1930s, the Jewish national struggle in the “Land of Israel” changed to the “British Mandate of Palestine” had drawn many Arab nationalist militants from across the Middle East, most notably Sheikh Izaddin al-Qassam from Syria, who established the Black Hand militant group and had prepared the grounds for the 1936 Arab revolt. Following the death of al-Qassam at the hands of the British in late 1935, the tensions erupted in 1936 into the Arab general strike and general boycott.

The strike soon deteriorated into violence and the bloodily repressed 1936–1939 Arab revolt in the Land of Israel aka Palestine against the British and the Jews. In the first wave of organized violence, lasting until early 1937, much of the Arab gangs were defeated by the British and a forced expulsion of much of the Arab leadership was performed. The revolt led to the establishment of the Peel Commission towards partitioning of the “Land of Israel” Palestine, though the Palestinian Arabs subsequently rejected it. The two main Jewish leaders, Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion, accepted the recommendations but some secondary Jewish leaders did not like it, because they knew it would be a future struggle of the Law of Judaism and Sharia Law. Although today in Israel all religions are allowed and practiced, but Sharia Law would be the law under a Palestine State. The Palestinians want to erase Judaism, Israel and Jews off the face of the earth.

The renewed violence, which had sporadically lasted until the beginning of WWII, ended with around 5,000 casualties, mostly from the Arab side. With the eruption of World War II, the situation in Mandatory Palestine calmed down. It allowed a shift towards a more moderate stance among Palestinian Arabs, under the leadership of the Nashashibi clan and even the establishment of the Jewish–Arab Palestine Regiment under British command, fighting Germans in North Africa.

Haj Amin al-Husseini, leader of the Palestinian nationalist movement, with Adolf Hitler, November 28, 1941. Heinrich Hoffman

The more radical exiled faction of al-Husseini however tended to cooperation with Nazi Germany, and participated in the establishment of pro-Nazi propaganda machine throughout the Arab world. Defeat of Arab nationalists in Iraq and subsequent relocation of al-Husseini to Nazi-occupied Europe tied his hands regarding field operations in Israel, though he regularly demanded the Italians and the Germans to bomb Tel Aviv. By the end of World War II, a crisis over the fate of the Holocaust survivors from Europe led to renewed tensions between the Yishuv and the Palestinian Arab leadership. The British established immigration quotas, while on the other hand illegal immigration and Zionist insurgency against the British was increasing.

 

Part of the Arab–Israeli conflict.Central Israel next to the Palestinian National Authority in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, 2007

The history of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict really heated up with the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948.

This conflict came from the intercommunal violence in Mandatory Palestine between Israelis and Arabs from 1920 and erupted into full-scale hostilities in the 1947–48 civil war. The conflict continues to the present day on various levels.

The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Hebrew: ‫הסכסוך הישראלי-פלסטיני‎‎ Ha’Sikhsukh Ha’Yisraeli-Falestini; Arabic: ‫النزاع الفلسطيني – الإسرائيلي‎‎ al-Niza’a al’Filastini al ‘Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.

The conflict is wide-ranging, and the term is sometimes also used in reference to the earlier sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine, between the Jewish yishuv and the Arab population under British rule. It has been referred to as the world’s “most intractable conflict”, according to Palestinians with the ongoing Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip reaching 50 years. But what most people fail to understand is that when the tribes of Israel was scattered throughout the world the Tribe of Judah and Benjamin as a whole did not leave the land as the other 10 tribes. They lived under the rule of the conquerors but still held on to their religious beliefs through the occupation of Rome and the Ottoman Empire.

Despite a long-term peace process and the general reconciliation of Israel with Egypt and Jordan, Israelis and Palestinians have failed to reach a final peace agreement. The key issues are: mutual recognition, borders, security, water rights, control of Jerusalem, Israeli settlements, Palestinian freedom of movement, and Palestinian right of return. The violence of the conflict, in a region rich in sites of historic, cultural and religious interest worldwide, has been the object of numerous international conferences dealing with historic rights, security issues and human rights, and has been a factor hampering tourism in and general access to areas that are hotly contested.

Land in the lighter shade represents territory within the borders of Israel at the conclusion of the 1948 war. This land is internationally recognized as belonging to Israel.

Many attempts have been made to broker a two-state solution, involving the creation of an independent Palestinian state alongside the State of Israel (after Israel’s establishment in 1948). In 2007, the majority of both Israelis and Palestinians, according to a number of polls, preferred the two-state solution to any other solution as a means of resolving the conflict. Moreover, a majority of Jews see the Palestinians’ demand for an independent state as just, and thinks Israel can agree to the establishment of such a state. The majority of Palestinians and Israelis in the West Bank and Gaza Strip have expressed a preference for a two-state solution. Mutual distrust and significant disagreements are deep over basic issues, as is the reciprocal skepticism about the other side’s commitment to upholding obligations in an eventual agreement, since the Palestinians break the agreements.

Within Israeli and Palestinian society, the conflict generates a wide variety of views and opinions. This highlights the deep divisions, which exist not only between Israelis and Palestinians, but also within each society. A hallmark of the conflict has been the level of violence witnessed for virtually its entire duration. Regular armies, paramilitary groups, terror cells, and individuals have conducted fighting. Casualties have not been restricted to the military, with a large number of fatalities in civilian population on both sides. There are prominent international actors involved in the conflict.

The two parties engaged in direct negotiation are the Israeli government, currently led by Benjamin Netanyahu, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), currently headed by Mahmoud Abbas. The official negotiations are mediated by an international contingent known as the Quartet on the Middle East (the Quartet) represented by a special envoy, which consists of the United States, Russia, the European Union, and the United Nations. The Arab League is another important actor, which has proposed an alternative peace plan. Egypt, a founding member of the Arab League, has historically been a key participant.

Since 2006, the Palestinian side has been fractured by conflict between the two major factions: Fatah, the traditionally dominant party, and its later electoral challenger, Hamas. After Hamas’s electoral victory in 2006, the Quartet conditioned future foreign assistance to the Palestinian National Authority (PA) on the future government’s commitment to non-violence, recognition of the State of Israel, and acceptance of previous agreements. Hamas rejected these demands, which resulted in the Quartet’s suspension of its foreign assistance program, and the imposition of economic sanctions by the Israelis. A year later, following Hamas’s seizure of power in the Gaza Strip in June 2007, the territory officially recognized as the PA was split between Fatah in the West Bank, and Hamas in the Gaza Strip. The division of governance between the parties had effectively resulted in the collapse of bipartisan governance of the PA. However, in 2014, a Palestinian Unity Government, composed of both Fatah and Hamas, was formed. The latest round of peace negotiations began in July 2013 and was suspended in 2014.

On 29 November 1947, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted Resolution 181(II) recommending the adoption and implementation of a plan to partition Palestine into an Arab state, a Jewish state and the City of Jerusalem. On the next day, Palestine was already swept by violence, with Arab and Jewish militias executing attacks.

For four months, under continuous Arab provocation and attack, the Yishuv was usually on the defensive while occasionally retaliating and it has been that way ever since. The Arab League supported the Arab struggle by forming the volunteer based Arab Liberation Army, supporting the Palestinian Arab Army of the Holy War, under the leadership of Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni and Hasan Salama.

On 14th May 1948 Israel accepted Resolution 181 (II) and declared its independence, recognised de facto by the United States

On the Jewish side, the civil war was managed by the major underground militias – the Haganah, Irgun and Lehi, strengthened by numerous Jewish veterans of World War II and foreign volunteers. By spring 1948, it was already clear that the Arab forces were nearing a total collapse, while Yishuv forces gained more and more territory, creating a large-scale refugee problem of Palestinian Arabs. Popular support for the Palestinian Arabs throughout the Arab world led to sporadic violence against Jewish communities of Middle East and North Africa, creating an opposite refugee wave with Jews leaving Arab countries.

Since none of the 900,000 Jewish refugees who fled anti-Semitic violence in the Arab countries was never compensated or repatriated by their former countries of residence—to no objection on the part of Arab leaders—a precedent has been set whereby it is the responsibility of the nation which accepts the refugees to assimilate them.

Although Israel accepts the right of the Palestinian Diaspora to return into a new Palestinian state, Israel insists that their return into the current state of Israel would be a great danger for the stability of the Jewish state; an influx of Palestinian refugees would lead to the destruction of the state of Israel and the eradication of Judaism. It is hypocritical for another nation to impose upon Israel to bow down to Sharia Law when they themselves will not submit to Sharia.

The problem is the world expects Israel to be attacked without retaliations. Israel has been accuse of War Crimes for defending their right to live regardless of how many times they are terrorized by radical Islamic forces to eradicate Israel and her people off the face of the earth.

Israel has given up land twice for the Peace Process to the Palestinians and they will never be satisfied until Israel become Palestine and Judaism is eradicated and Sharia Law governs “The Land of Israel” International Law does not supersede God’s Laws and Covenant, nor does the League of Nations or the United Nation. It will be the Power of God that will restore Judah and the Hebrews to their original land!

 

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